erste computer

Mai Vor 75 Jahren präsentierte Konrad Zuse mit dem Z3 den ersten wirklich funktionstüchtigen Computer. 4. Nov. The First Computers. Es gibt unter Computer-Historikern keine einheitliche Meinung, welcher Computer "der erste" gewesen sei. Ein Computer [kɔmˈpjuːtɐ] oder Rechner ist ein Gerät, das mittels programmierbarer . Die ersten Computer wurden auch tatsächlich so programmiert, dass man die Nummern von Befehlen und von bestimmten Speicherzellen so, wie es.

Erste Computer Video

Die Geschichte des PCs (4 Stunden HD)

Erste computer - duly

Das heute allgemein angewandte Prinzip, das nach seiner Beschreibung durch John von Neumann von als Von-Neumann-Architektur bezeichnet wird, definiert für einen Computer fünf Hauptkomponenten:. Der IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator ist der erste Computer, der elektronische Berechnungen mit gespeicherten Instruktionen kombiniert und gehört zu den ersten eletromechanischen Computern, die je gebaut wurden. Der Zeitpunkt an dem künstliche Intelligenz die menschliche Intelligenz übertrifft nennt man technologische Singularität. Im Juli produzierte Commodore den ersten Amiga-Heimcomputer. Trotz ihres Alters und nicht vorhandener obwohl ursprünglich angestrebten Plattformunabhängigkeit wird sie noch heute verwendet. Bei der Klassifizierung eines Geräts als universell programmierbarer Computer spielt die Turing-Vollständigkeit eine wesentliche Rolle. Es erlaubte die Darstellung von Zahlen, Ausdrücken und Formeln auf Papier und die Tabellierung von mathematischen Funktionen wie der Quadratwurzel, des einfachen Logarithmus und trigonometrischer Funktionen.

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Jedes Blatt konnte in einer Sekunde beschrieben oder gelesen werden. In anderen Sprachen Links hinzufügen. Sollten die Daten länger gespeichert bleiben, mussten sie nach jedem Lesevorgang sofort neu geschrieben werden. Acorn war eine britische Firma und der Rechner war in seinem Heimatland am erfolgreichsten. Auch Maschinen auf analoger Basis wurden entwickelt. Der Datapoint war ein Terminalcomputer, der an die gängigen Mainframecomputer angeschlossen werden konnte. Plankalkül war die erste höhere Programmiersprache. Bill Gates hatte die Lizenz für sein Betriebssystem behalten und belieferte damit ganz legal auch jene, die mit den gleichen Bauteilen wie IBM eigene "Heim-Computer" zusammenschraubten. Der letzte wurde bei eBay für Auf hochintegrierten Schaltungen basierend. Der IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator ist der erste Computer, der elektronische Berechnungen mit gespeicherten Instruktionen kombiniert und gehört zu den ersten eletromechanischen Computern, die je gebaut wurden. In der Informatik wird dieses Modell theoretisch risiko anleitung die eingangs erwähnte Turing-Maschine abgebildet; die Turing-Maschine stellt die grundsätzlichen Überlegungen zur Berechenbarkeit dar. Die Hardware stellt erstens einen Speicher bereit, in dem Daten portionsweise wie zwerev den nummerierten Seiten eines Buches gespeichert und jederzeit zur Verarbeitung oder Ausgabe abgerufen werden können. Heute werden die Platten forex handel erfahrungen Kupfer beschichtet rcd 215 das überflüssige Kupfer so entfernt, dass Leiterbahnen entstehen. Zahlen wurden mit Hilfe von Schiebereglern eingegeben. Generation Auf integrierten Schaltungen basierend. IBM Personal Computer dt. Die "Bildpunkte" waren allerdings nicht sichtbar, da die Röhren kein Phosphor enthielten. Januar um Best online casino rtp Firmen experimentieren mit neuen Floppy-Versionen. Das Gerät diente vermutlich für astronomische Berechnungen und sigma bank auszahlungsdauer mit einem Differentialgetriebeeiner erst im Von Online games 2019 entwickelt das Universalrechnerkonzept. Dezember in Hünfeld. Aus diesem Grund werden digitale Signalprozessoren häufig in Harvard-Architektur ausgeführt. Der Wasserstand in den Behältern entsprach verschiedenen Zahlenwerten. Die heute marktüblichen PCs mit Windows - Betriebssystem und xProzessoren beruhen auf der stetigen Weiterentwicklung des damaligen Konzepts. Das Gerät bestand aus Relais, verwendete binäre Gleitkommazahlen und hatte eine Taktrate von 5 bis 10 Fs play. Die Auflösung betrug 0. Konrad Zuse hatte den ersten Computer der Welt vorgestellt. Beim damals üblichen "time-sharing" teilten sich ähnlich den heute üblichen terminalbasierten zB. Computer Computergeschichte Konrad Zuse Z3. Doppel Floppylaufwerk CBM 5. Anders als ein urbaner Mythos behauptet, fielen bei dem Gerät nicht andauernd Röhren aus und es dauerte auch nicht mehrere Stunden, die ausgefallenen Röhren zu finden. Mai in Berlin der Öffentlichkeit vor. Aufgrund seines zukunftsweisenden logischen Konzeptes wird die Z1, zusammen mit der Z3, in der Fachwelt oft als erster, wenn auch sehr einfacher, Computer bezeichnet. Die Kernspeichermodule wurden durch Halbleiterspeicher ersetzt und in ROMs gespeicherte Softwarebibliotheken kamen hinzu. Zunächst konnte eine Röhre nur ein einzelnes Bit speichern, später gelang es den Erfindern, die Speicherkapazität auf Bit zu erhöhen. Zum Typus des derzeit meistverbreiteten Computers siehe Personal Computer. Colossus war in der Lage, 5. Ohne den Z3 würde unser Alltag heute womöglich ganz anders aus: Diese folgen gemeinsamen Grundprinzipien, mit denen ihre freie Programmierung ermöglicht wird. Trotz ihres Alters und nicht vorhandener obwohl ursprünglich angestrebten Plattformunabhängigkeit wird sie noch heute verwendet.

On August 15, , Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the Macintosh K: The iMac design team was led by Ive, who would later design the iPod and the iPhone.

During this period, [ when? The product, still unfinished at the time of the sale, was renamed " Final Cut Pro " when it was launched on the retail market in April Apple then employed the same technology to create iDVD for the consumer market.

In , Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake , [84] as well as Emagic for the music productivity application Logic.

The purchase of Emagic made Apple the first computer manufacturer to own a music software company. Aimed at consumers and professionals alike, Mac OS X aimed to combine the stability, reliability, and security of Unix with the ease of use afforded by an overhauled user interface.

On May 19, , Apple opened its first official eponymous retail stores in Virginia and California. The iTunes Store quickly became the market leader in online music services, with over five billion downloads by June 19, At the Worldwide Developers Conference keynote address on June 6, , Jobs announced that Apple would begin producing Intel -based Mac computers in By August 7, , Apple made the transition to Intel chips for the entire Mac product line—over one year sooner than announced.

On December 16, , Apple announced that would be the last year the corporation would attend the Macworld Expo, after more than 20 years of attendance, and that senior vice president of Worldwide Product Marketing Phil Schiller would deliver the keynote address in lieu of the expected Jobs.

The official press release explained that Apple was "scaling back" on trade shows in general, including Macworld Tokyo and the Apple Expo in Paris, France, primarily because the enormous successes of the Apple Retail Stores and website had rendered trade shows a minor promotional channel.

On January 14, , Jobs announced in an internal memo that he would be taking a six-month medical leave of absence from Apple until the end of June and would spend the time focusing on his health.

In the email, Jobs stated that "the curiosity over my personal health continues to be a distraction not only for me and my family, but everyone else at Apple as well", and explained that the break would allow the company "to focus on delivering extraordinary products".

After years of speculation and multiple rumored "leaks", Apple unveiled a large screen, tablet-like media device known as the iPad on January 27, The iPad ran the same touch-based operating system as the iPhone, and many iPhone apps were compatible with the iPad.

This gave the iPad a large app catalog on launch, despite very little development time before the release. Later that year on April 3, , the iPad was launched in the US.

It sold more than , units on its first day, and , by the end of the first week. Alongside peer entities such as Atari and Cisco Systems, Apple was featured in the documentary Something Ventured , which premiered in and explored the three-decade era that led to the establishment and dominance of Silicon Valley.

On January 17, , Jobs announced in an internal Apple memo that he would take another medical leave of absence for an indefinite period to allow him to focus on his health.

This would be the last product launch Jobs would attend before his death. It has been argued that Apple has achieved such efficiency in its supply chain that the company operates as a monopsony one buyer, many sellers and can dictate terms to its suppliers.

Prior to this, Apple did not have a chairman and instead had two co-lead directors, Andrea Jung and Arthur D. Levinson , who continued with those titles until Levinson became chairman of the board in November.

On October 5, , Steve Jobs died, marking the end of an era for Apple. From to , Apple released the iPhone 4S [] [] and iPhone 5 , [] [] which featured improved cameras, an intelligent software assistant named Siri , and cloud-sourced data with iCloud; the third and fourth generation iPads, which featured Retina displays ; [] [] [] and the iPad Mini , which featured a 7.

This beat the non-inflation-adjusted record for market capitalization set by Microsoft in A previously confidential email written by Jobs a year before his death was presented during the proceedings of the Apple Inc.

Notably, Jobs declares a "Holy War with Google" for and schedules a "new campus" for In March , Apple filed a patent for an augmented reality AR system that can identify objects in a live video stream and present information corresponding to these objects through a computer-generated information layer overlaid on top of the real-world image.

It also experienced a significant year-over-year increase in Mac sales. This was contrasted with a significant drop in iPod sales.

In January , it was announced that one billion Apple devices were in active use worldwide. On May 12, , Apple Inc. On June 6, , Forbes released their list of companies ranked on revenue generation.

In the trailing fiscal year, Apple appeared on the list as the top tech company. On April 6, , Apple launched Clips , an app that allows iPad and iPhone users to make and edit videos.

The app provides a way to produce short videos to share with other users on the Messages app, Instagram , Facebook and other social networks.

Apple also introduced Live Titles for Clips that allows users to add live animated captions and titles using their voice. In May , Apple refreshed two of its website designs.

Their public relations "Apple Press Info" website was changed to an "Apple Newsroom" site, featuring a greater emphasis on imagery and therefore lower information density, and combines press releases, news items, and photos.

Its "Apple Leadership" overview of company executives was also refreshed, adding a simpler layout with a prominent header image and two-column text fields.

In November , Apple announced it was branching out into original scripted programming: Furthermore, there are five series in development at Apple.

Apple purchased Akonia Holographics in August who makes lenses for augmented reality goggles. On October 23, , Apple introduced the iPod digital music player.

Several updated models have since been introduced, and the iPod brand is now the market leader in portable music players by a significant margin.

It also includes web-based and Dashboard apps such as Google Maps and Weather. The iPhone features a 3. The flat silver back and large antenna square of the original model were eliminated in favor of a glossy, curved black or white back.

Software capabilities were improved with the release of the App Store , which provided iPhone-compatible applications to download. On April 24, , the App Store [] surpassed one billion downloads.

It provided an incremental update to the device, including faster internal components, support for faster 3G speeds, video recording capability, and voice control.

The issue was corrected by a "Bumper Case" distributed by Apple for free to all owners for a few months. On September 12, , Apple introduced the iPhone 5.

Apple is working towards a power management system that will provide features such as the ability of the iPhone to estimate the length of time a user will be away from a power source to modify energy usage and a detection function that adjusts the charging rate to best suit the type of power source that is being used.

He explained that the phones are comparatively expensive due to the intensive effort that is used to make them:.

The body is made from a single piece of machined aluminium The whole thing is polished first to a mirror finish and then is very finely textured, except for the Apple logo.

The chamfers [smoothed-off edges] are cut with diamond-tipped cutters. The camera cover is sapphire crystal. Look at the details around the SIM-card slot.

On September 9, , Apple introduced the iPhone 6 , alongside the iPhone 6 Plus that both have screen sizes over 4-inches.

In July , Apple announced that one billion iPhones had been sold. On September 7, , Apple introduced the iPhone 7 and the iPhone 7 Plus , which feature improved system and graphics performance, add water resistance, a new rear dual-camera system on the 7 Plus model, and, controversially, remove the 3.

On September 12, , Apple introduced the iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus , standing as evolutionary updates to its previous phones with a faster processor, improved display technology, upgraded camera systems and wireless charging.

The iPhone XR comes in an all-screen glass and aluminium design with the most advanced LCD in a smartphone featuring a 6. On January 27, , Apple introduced their much-anticipated media tablet , the iPad.

On March 2, , Apple introduced the iPad 2 , which had a faster processor and a camera on the front and back. The third-generation iPad was released on March 7, , and marketed as " the new iPad ".

The dimensions and form factor remained relatively unchanged, with the new iPad being a fraction thicker and heavier than the previous version and featuring minor positioning changes.

It added the upgraded A6X processor and replaced the traditional pin dock connector with the all-digital Lightning connector.

It featured a reduced 7. The iPad Air 2 was unveiled on October 16, It added better graphics and central processing and a camera burst mode as well as minor updates.

The iPad Mini 3 was unveiled at the same time. Since its launch, iPad users have downloaded over three billion apps. The original Apple Watch smartwatch was announced by Tim Cook on September 9, , being introduced as a product with health and fitness-tracking.

The second generation of Apple Watch, Apple Watch Series 2 , was released in September , featuring greater water resistance, a faster processor, and brighter display.

On September 12, , Apple introduced the Apple Watch Series 3 featuring LTE cellular connectivity, giving the wearable independence from an iPhone [] except for the setup process.

On September 12, , Apple introduced the Apple Watch Series 4 , featuring new display, electrocardiogram and fall detection. At the Macworld conference, Jobs demonstrated the Apple TV previously known as the iTV , [] a set-top video device intended to bridge the sale of content from iTunes with high-definition televisions.

It has HDMI out as the only video output source. Features include access to the iTunes Store to rent movies and TV shows purchasing has been discontinued , streaming from internet video sources, including YouTube and Netflix , and media streaming from an iTunes library.

A third generation of the device was introduced at an Apple event on March 7, , with new features such as higher resolution p and a new user interface.

The release also coincided with the opening of a separate Apple TV App Store and a new Siri Remote with a glass touchpad , gyroscope , and microphone.

The 4K model also has support for high dynamic range. It also features 7 tweeters in the base, a four-inch woofer in the top, and six microphones for voice control and acoustic optimization [] [] [] On September 12, , Apple announced that HomePod is adding new features—search by lyrics, set multiple timers, make and receive phone calls, Find My iPhone, Siri Shortcuts—and Siri languages.

For iOS and macOS, Apple also develops its own software titles, including Pages for writing, Numbers for spreadsheets, and Keynote for presentations, as part of its iWork productivity suite.

Apple also offers online services with iCloud , which provides cloud storage and synchronization for a wide range of user data, including documents, photos, music, device backups, and application data, [] and Apple Music , its music and video streaming service.

According to the Sydney Morning Herald , Apple wants to start producing an electric car with autonomous driving as soon as Apple will use the methane emissions to generate electricity.

Jobs thought the name "Apple" was "fun, spirited and not intimidating". Janoff presented Jobs with several different monochromatic themes for the "bitten" logo, and Jobs immediately took a liking to it.

However, Jobs insisted that the logo be colorized to humanize the company. On August 27, [] the year following the introduction of the iMac G3 , Apple officially dropped the rainbow scheme and began to use monochromatic logos nearly identical in shape to the previous rainbow incarnation.

An Aqua -themed version of the monochrome logo was used from to , and a glass-themed version was used from to This resulted in a series of lawsuits and tension between the two companies.

These issues ended with the settling of their lawsuit in However, claims made by later campaigns were criticized , [] particularly the Power Mac ads.

Apple owns a YouTube channel where they release advertisements, tips, and introductions for their devices. BYTE in stated that [].

There are two kinds of people in the world: Both groups are right. Nature has suspended the principle of noncontradiction where Apple is concerned.

Apple is more than just a company because its founding has some of the qualities of myth Apple is two guys in a garage undertaking the mission of bringing computing power, once reserved for big corporations, to ordinary individuals with ordinary budgets.

Apple evangelists were actively engaged by the company at one time, but this was after the phenomenon had already been firmly established.

Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in , and in the world from to The New York Times in stated that "Apple above all else is a marketing company".

It was the marketing company of the decade. The research indicated that this correlation could stem from the fact that on average Apple Inc.

What people are responding to is much bigger than the object. They are responding to something rare—a group of people who do more than simply make something work, they make the very best products they possibly can.

Apple has a satellite campus in neighboring Sunnyvale, California , where it houses a testing and research laboratory.

In , Apple announced its intention to build a second campus in Cupertino about 1 mile 1. The new campus is planned to house up to 13, employees in one central, four-storied, circular building surrounded by extensive landscape.

The expansion consists of two locations, with one having 1. At its smaller campus, engineers work on next-generation processor chips to run in future Apple products.

In February , Apple opened their new ,square-foot headquarters in Herzliya , Israel , which will accommodate approximately employees. The first Apple Stores were originally opened as two locations in May by then- CEO Steve Jobs, [] after years of attempting but failing store-within-a-store concepts.

In addition to purchasing products, consumers can get advice and help from "Creative Pros" — individuals with specialized knowledge of creative arts; get product support in a tree-lined Genius Grove; and attend sessions, conferences and community events, [] [] with Ahrendts commenting that the goal is to make Apple Stores into "town squares", a place where people naturally meet up and spend time.

Many Apple Stores are located inside shopping malls, but Apple has built several stand-alone "flagship" stores in high-profile locations.

Fifth Avenue , New York City. IFC mall store in Hong Kong. TsUM store in Moscow. Apple was one of several highly successful companies founded in the s that bucked the traditional notions of corporate culture.

Jobs often walked around the office barefoot even after Apple became a Fortune company. As the company has grown and been led by a series of differently opinionated chief executives, it has arguably lost some of its original character.

Nonetheless, it has maintained a reputation for fostering individuality and excellence that reliably attracts talented workers, particularly after Jobs returned to the company.

To recognize the best of its employees, Apple created the Apple Fellows program which awards individuals who make extraordinary technical or leadership contributions to personal computing while at the company.

At Apple, employees are specialists who are not exposed to functions outside their area of expertise. Jobs saw this as a means of having "best-in-class" employees in every role.

For instance, Ron Johnson —Senior Vice President of Retail Operations until November 1, —was responsible for site selection, in-store service, and store layout, yet had no control of the inventory in his stores this was done by Cook, who had a background in supply-chain management.

Each project has a "directly responsible individual," or "DRI" in Apple jargon. The company typically grants stock options to executives every other year.

Apple does not specify how many of its employees work in retail, though its SEC filing put the number at approximately half of its employee base.

In December , Glassdoor named Facebook the best place to work, according to reviews from anonymous employees, with Apple dropping to 48th place, having originally entered at rank 19 in , peaking at rank 10 in , and falling down the ranks in subsequent years.

He goes on to write that the criticism focuses on individual pieces of hardware rather than the ecosystem as a whole, stating "Yes, iteration is boring.

He acknowledges that people are wishing for the "excitement of revolution", but argues that people want "the comfort that comes with harmony".

Whereas Google and Amazon make use of big data and analyze customer information to personalize results, Apple has a strong pro-privacy stance , intentionally not retaining user data.

The report further claims that development on Siri has suffered due to team members and executives leaving the company for competitors, a lack of ambitious goals, and shifting strategies.

Improvements to Siri stalled, executives clashed, and there were disagreements over the restrictions imposed on third-party app interactions.

The former had experienced a severe security vulnerability, in which Macs running the then-latest macOS High Sierra software were vulnerable to a bug that let anyone gain administrator privileges by entering "root" as the username in system prompts, leaving the password field empty and twice clicking "unlock", gaining full access.

Apple has gradually expanded its efforts in getting its products into the Indian market. In July , during a conference call with investors, CEO Tim Cook said that he "[loves] India", but that Apple saw larger opportunities outside the region.

The company advertised its products as being made in America until the late s; however, as a result of outsourcing initiatives in the s, almost all of its manufacturing is now handled abroad.

According to a report by The New York Times , Apple insiders "believe the vast scale of overseas factories, as well as the flexibility, diligence and industrial skills of foreign workers, have so outpaced their American counterparts that "Made in the U.

In , the Mail on Sunday reported on the working conditions of the Chinese factories where contract manufacturers Foxconn and Inventec produced the iPod.

Apple immediately launched an investigation after the media report, and worked with their manufacturers to ensure acceptable working conditions.

Yearly progress reports have been published since A team from Apple is independently evaluating the steps they are taking to address these tragic events and we will continue our ongoing inspections of the facilities where our products are made.

Also in , workers in China planned to sue iPhone contractors over poisoning by a cleaner used to clean LCD screens. One worker claimed that he and his coworkers had not been informed of possible occupational illnesses.

The Pegatron factory was once again the subject of review, as reporters gained access to the working conditions inside through recruitment as employees.

While the BBC maintained that the experiences of its reporters showed that labor violations were continuing since , Apple publicly disagreed with the BBC and stated: According to the report, workers are pressured into hour work weeks which leaves them so exhausted that they often sleep during lunch breaks.

They are also made to reside in "primitive, dark and filthy dorms" where they sleep "on plywood, with six to ten workers in each crowded room.

In , Climate Counts , a nonprofit organization dedicated to directing consumers toward the greenest companies, gave Apple a score of 52 points out of a possible , which puts Apple in their top category "Striding".

Each product receives a Gold, Silver, or Bronze rank depending on its efficiency and sustainability. Another partnership announced is with the World Wildlife Fund to preserve up to 1,, acres of forests in China.

Liam was introduced to the world, an advanced robotic disassembler and sorter designed by Apple Engineers in California specifically for recycling outdated or broken iPhones.

Reuses and recycles parts from traded in products. Apple announced on August 16, , that Lens Technology, one of its major suppliers in China, has committed to power all its glass production for Apple with percent renewable energy by The standard, which started in January , certifies that all manufacturing waste is reused , recycled , composted , or converted into energy when necessary.

Since the program began, nearly, , metric tons of waste have been diverted from landfills. Following further campaigns by Greenpeace, [] in , Apple became the first electronics manufacturer to fully eliminate all polyvinyl chloride PVC and brominated flame retardants BFRs in its complete product line.

Allowing consumers to make informed purchasing decisions on the products they offer for sale. The company ranked fourth of fifteen electronics companies moving up five places from the previous year with a score of 4.

However, the guide criticizes Apple on the Energy criteria for not seeking external verification of its greenhouse gas emissions data and for not setting out any targets to reduce emissions.

The green bond proceeds are dedicated to the financing of environmental projects. In its fiscal year ending in September , Apple Inc.

On August 2, , Apple became the first publicly traded U. Apple has created subsidiaries in low-tax places such as Ireland , the Netherlands , Luxembourg and the British Virgin Islands to cut the taxes it pays around the world.

According to The New York Times, in the s Apple was among the first tech companies to designate overseas salespeople in high-tax countries in a manner that allowed the company to sell on behalf of low-tax subsidiaries on other continents, sidestepping income taxes.

In the late s, Apple was a pioneer of an accounting technique known as the " Double Irish with a Dutch sandwich ," which reduces taxes by routing profits through Irish subsidiaries and the Netherlands and then to the Caribbean.

British Conservative Party Member of Parliament Charlie Elphicke published research on October 30, , [] which showed that some multinational companies, including Apple Inc.

He followed this research by calling on the Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne to force these multinationals, which also included Google and The Coca-Cola Company , to state the effective rate of tax they pay on their UK revenues.

Elphicke also said that government contracts should be withheld from multinationals who do not pay their fair share of UK tax. It was not until that Irish economists could definitively prove that the growth was due to Apple restructuring its controversial double Irish subsidiaries Apple Sales International , which Apple converted into a new Irish capital allowances for intangible assets tax scheme expires in January These are mainly held by institutional investors and funds.

Apple has been a participant in various legal proceedings and claims since it began operation. Some litigation examples include Apple v. Samsung , Apple v.

Microsoft , Motorola Mobility v. Apple has also had to defend itself against charges on numerous occasions of violating intellectual property rights.

Most have been dismissed in the courts as shell companies known as patent trolls , with no evidence of actual use of patents in question.

Apple has a notable pro-privacy stance, actively making privacy-conscious features and settings part of its conferences, promotional campaigns, and public image.

Apple contributes financially to fundraisers in times of natural disasters. Apple has dealt with a number of issues regarding music over the years, including issues with the European Union regarding iTunes, [] trouble over updating the Spotify app on Apple devices [] and collusion with record labels.

Apple has also faced scrutiny for its tax practices, including using a Double Irish Arrangement to reduce the amount of taxes it pays. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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